International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Energy Constrained Monitoring-Driven Mobile Charging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

With the development of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology, Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs) have become the focus of researchers. Although many researchers have studied the problems of mobile charging in WRSN, they often neglect the differences between sensors. In the actual situation, the utility of different sensors may be different even when they receive the same energy. In this paper, we consider that there are many initial subareas need to be monitored. The different initial subareas have different monitoring utility per unit area, and each sensor covers a circular area. Thus, the entire region can be further divided into more final subareas. The total monitoring utility is the sum of the monitoring utility of the final subareas monitored by sensors. This is the first work to study monitoring-driven mobile charging problem, which considers the differences between different subareas. We model the monitoring-driven mobile charging system and formalize the Monitoring-driven Mobile Charging (MMC) problem. Our goal is to find a traveling loop that does not exceed the energy capacity of the mobile charger, to maximize total monitoring utility. Through area discretization and auxiliary graph construction, we simplify the problem and provide a greedy algorithm to solve it. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can outperform comparison algorithms by at most 189.11% in terms of monitoring utility.

Wireless Charging, Mobile Charging, Monitoring-Driven, Area Discretization, Auxiliary Graph Construction

Zhiqiang Wang, Jun Fu, Lei Han. (2023). Energy Constrained Monitoring-Driven Mobile Charging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks. International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks, 11(2), 25-34.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. X. Lu, P. Wang, D. Niyato, D. I. Kim, Z. Han. Wireless Charging Technologies: Fundamentals, Standards, and Network Applications. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 2016, 18 (2), 1413-1452. doi: 10.1109/COMST.2015.2499783.
2. J. Xu, S. Hu, S. Wu, K. Zhou, H. Dai, L. Xu. Cooperative Charging as Service: Scheduling for Mobile Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks. In IEEE ICDCS. DC, USA, 2021; pp. 685-695.
3. A. Adeel, M. Gogate, S. Farooq, C. Ieracitano, K. Dashtipour, H. Larijani, A. Hussain. A Survey on the Role of Wireless Sensor Networks and IoT in Disaster Management. Geological Disaster Monitoring based on Sensor Networks. 2019, 57-66. doi:
4. Y. Jin, J. Xu, S. Wu, L. Xu, D. Yang, K. Xia. Bus Network Assisted Drone Scheduling for Sustainable Charging of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network. Journal of Systems Architecture. 2021, 116, 102059. doi: 10.1016/j.sysarc.2021.102059.
5. P. K. Chittoor, C. Bharatiraja. Wireless-Sensor Communication Based Wireless-Charging Coil Positioning System for UAVs With Maximum Power Point Tracking. IEEE Sensors Journal. 2022, 22 (8), 8175-8182. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2022.3156089.
6. H. Liu, X. Huang, L. Tan, J. Guo, W. Wang, C. Yan, C. Xu. Dynamic Wireless Charging for Inspection Robots Based on Decentralized Energy Pickup Structure. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 2018, 14 (4), 1786-1797. doi: 10.1109/TII.2017.2781370.
7. I. Cortes, W. Kim. Autonomous Positioning of a Mobile Robot for Wireless Charging Using Computer Vision and Misalignment-Sensing Coils. In IEEE Annual American Control Conference (ACC). Milwaukee, WI, USA, 2018; pp. 4324-4329.
8. A. Sample, D. J. Yeager, P. S. Powledge, A. V. Mamishev, J. R. Smith. Design of an RFID-based Battery-Free Programmable Sensing Platform. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 2008, 57 (11), 2608-2615. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2008.925019.
9. H. Dai, Y. Xu, G. Chen, W. Dou, C. Tian, X. Wu, T. He. ROSE: Robustly Safe Charging for Wireless Power Transfer. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 2022, 21 (6), 2180-2197. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2008.925019.
10. S. Wu, H. Dai, L. Xu, L. Liu, F. Xiao, J. Xu. Comprehensive Cost Optimization for Charger Deployment in Multi-hop Wireless Charging. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 2023, 22 (8), 4563-4577. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2008.925019.
11. C. Lin, Y. Zhou, F. Ma, J. Deng, L. Wang, G. Wu. Minimizing Charging Delay for Directional Charging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks. In IEEE INFOCOM. Paris, France, 2019, pp. 1819-1827.
12. N. Wang, J. Wu, H. Dai. Bundle Charging: Wireless Charging Energy Minimization in Dense Wireless Sensor Networks. in IEEE ICDCS. Dallas, TX, USA, 2019, pp. 810-820.
13. P. Zhou, C. Wang, Y. Yang. Static and Mobile Target k-Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 2019, 18 (10), 2430-2445. doi: 10.1109/TMC.2018.2872576.
14. S. Khuller, A. Moss, J. Naor. The budgeted maximum coverage problem. Information Processing Letters. 1999, 70 (1), 39-45. doi:
15. W. Xu, W. Liang, H. Kan, Y. Xu, X. Zhang. Minimizing the Longest Charge Delay of Multiple Mobile Chargers for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks by Charging Multiple Sensors Simultaneously. In IEEE ICDCS. Dallas, TX, USA, 2019, pp. 881-890.
16. Y. Ma, W. Liang, W. Xu. Charging utility maximization in wireless rechargeable sensor networks by charging multiple sensors simultaneously. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 2018, 26 (4), 1591-1604. doi: 10.1109/TNET.2018.2841420.
17. M. Srinivas, P. K. Donta, T. Amgoth. Mobile Charger Utility Maximization through Preemptive Scheduling for Rechargeable WSNs. In OITS International Conference on Information Technology (OCIT). Bhubaneswar, India, 2021, pp. 126-131.
18. S. Priyadarshani, A. Tomar, P. K. Jana. An efficient partial charging scheme using multiple mobile chargers in wireless rechargeable sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks. 2021, 113 (1), 102407. doi:
19. Y. Sun, C. Lin, H. Dai, P. Wang, L. Wang, G. Wu. Trading off charging and sensing for stochastic events monitoring in WRSNs. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 2022, 30 (1), 557-571. doi: 10.1109/TNET.2021.3122130.
20. Y. Ren, A. Liu, X. Mao, F. Li. An intelligent charging scheme maximizing the utility for rechargeable network in smart city. Pervasive and Mobile Computing. 2021, 77, 101457-101480. doi:
21. T. Wu, P. Yang, H. Dai, W. Xu, M. Xu. Collaborated task-driven mobile charging and scheduling: A near optimal result. In IEEE INFOCOM. Paris, France, 2019, pp. 1810-1818.
22. T. Wu, P. Yang, H. Dai, C. Xiang, X. Rao. Joint sensor selection and energy allocation for tasks-driven mobile charging in wireless rechargeable sensor networks. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 2020, 7 (12), 11505-11523. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2020.3019451.
23. X. Ding, J. Guo, Y. Wang, D. Li, W. Wu. Task-driven charger placement and power allocation for wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks. 2021, 19 (1), 48-64. doi:
24. H. Dai, X. Wang, X. Lin, R. Gu, S. Shi, Y. Liu, W. Dou, G. Chen. Placing Wireless Chargers with Limited Mobility. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 2023, 22 (6), 3589-3603. doi: 10.1109/TMC.2021.3136967.
25. S. Zhang, Z. Qian, J. Wu, F. Kong, S. Lu. Wireless charger placement and power allocation for maximizing charging quality. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 2018, 17 (6), 1483-1496. doi: 10.1109/TMC.2017.2771425.
26. T. Wu, P. Yang, H. Dai, P. Li, X. Rao. Near optimal bounded route association for drone-enabled rechargeable WSNs. Computer Networks. 2018, 145 (9), 107-117. doi:
27. C. Lin, C. Guo, H. Dai, L. Wang, G. Wu. Near optimal charging scheduling for 3-D wireless rechargeable sensor networks with energy constraints. In IEEE ICDCS. Dallas, TX, USA, 2019, pp. 624-633.
28. H. Dai, Y. Liu, G. Chen, X. Wu, T. He. Safe Charging for wireless power transfer. In IEEE INFOCOM. Toronto, ON, Canada, 2014, pp. 1105-1113.
29. H. Dai, Y. Liu, N. Yu, C. Wu, G. Chen, T. He, and A. X. Liu. Radiation Constrained Wireless Charger Placement. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 2021, 29 (1), 48-64. doi: 10.1109/tnet.2020.3028704.
30. M. Bellmore, G. L. Nemhauser. The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Survey. Operations Research, 1968, 16(3): 538-558. doi: 10.1287/opre.16.3.538.
31. H. Zhang and Y. Vorobeychik. Submodular optimization with routing constraints. In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 2016, pp. 819–826.
32. T. Liu, B. Wu, S. Zhang, J. Peng and W. Xu. An Effective Multi-node Charging Scheme for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks. In IEEE INFOCOM. Toronto, ON, Canada, 2020, pp. 2026-2035.
33. D. Nuraiman, F. Ilahi, Y. Dewi and E. A. Z. Hamidi. A New Hybrid Method Based on Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and 2-Opt Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem. In IEEE ICWT. Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, 2018, pp. 1-4.